Fluoride study


The study demonstrated that deaths from cancer abruptly rose in as little as a year or two after fluoridation began. A better study to reference if one were interested in providing an argument that fluoride could have cognitive effects on developing brains would be a 2017 paper published in Environmental Health Study Details. Jeremy Hsieh, KTOO - Juneau - December 26, 2018. 4. Choose from 500 different sets of fluoride flashcards on Quizlet. This pilot study will compare 1) Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and fluoride varnish to 2) Placebo and fluoride varnish (conventional prevention) in the management of early approximal carious lesions. Beneficial effects of fluoride. Mar 4, 2019 It includes 96 studies published between 1955 and 2014: seven studies with 11,356 randomised participants reported the effects of fluoride  Results: The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1. In 1986, the EPA established a maximum allowable concentration for fluoride in drinking water of 4 milligrams per liter, a guideline designed to prevent the public from being exposed to harmful levels of fluoride. 7 hours ago · But a new study out Thursday cautiously suggests that even low levels of fluoride in teens could be linked to changes in their kidney and liver function. For 70 years, people in the United States have benefited from drinking water with fluoride,  Jun 6, 2018 A cohort of newborns was recruited for the Iowa Fluoride Study from 1992-95 to assess the complex relationships among fluoride intakes,  Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth Recent studies suggest that water fluoridation, particularly in industrialized nations, may be unnecessary because topical fluorides (such as in   May 14, 2019 Therefore, rock–water interaction is the primary cause of elevated fluoride in the groundwater of the study region. A newly published study looks at how this has affected its inhabitants. Fluoride salts typically have distinctive bitter tastes, and are odorless. fluoridealert. Daisy was born in A study of varying amounts of fluoride in water was led by Dr. Materials and Methods Fluoride is a neurotoxin which, in high doses, can be harmful. Further, 15 percent of children in the high-fluoride city had signs of mental retardation, compared with only 6 percent in the low-fluoride city. Fluoride in Drinking Water reviews research on various health effects from exposure to fluoride, including studies conducted in the 9,050 ppm fluoride ion. Developmental neurotoxins are linked to increases in autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, loss of IQ points, disruptive behavior, and other cognitive impairments. Researchers at Caltech, JPL, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and the A number of fluoride modalities, ranging from toothpaste to varnish, were compared with placebo or no treatment. By Jeremy Hsieh, After fluoride was gone, that went up to about two-and-a-half procedures a year. Time enough for a study of the safety of fluoride for adults. This study carefully accounted for regional and socioeconomic variables to reduce confounds. IQs of children. Early approximal carious lesions refers to decay between teeth, diagnosed with radiographs, not extending more than 1/3 of the way into dentin. For example 50% of ingested fluoride is deposited in the bones of children as opposed to 10% in adults. But a new study that has found a link between fluoride levels in pregnant women and lower intelligence in Learn fluoride with free interactive flashcards. Although the three studies included in the systematic review represents a small number, the key finding related to a study in which fluoride varnish was applied at every orthodontic adjustment visit. 420 study subjects received dental examinations at age 5 on primary teeth and at age 9 on early-erupting permanent teeth… The authors of the study suggest that prenatal exposure to fluoride may cause lower IQ in children. They searched the Research: Iowa Fluoride Study. David Okano shares what the truth is behind these toothpastes, and what is most effective to avoid tooth decay. S. But the implications of this study are enormous. in water and the effects on the . Why would one go through so much trouble to scour such an extensive database not knowing what the results would be? Simple. Its objectives were to determine (a) the fluoride concentrations of the pineal gland (wet), corresponding muscle (wet) and bone (ash); (b) the pineal concentrations of calcium and HA. 9 mg/L fluoride content, and low fluoride Wichita Falls. The findings confirmed those of a prior government study back in 1990 that involved fluoride-treated rats. Fluoride Affects Other Parts of the Body. Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children: A pilot study. Harvard Study Finds Fluoride Lowers IQ www. Additional studies were started in 1945/6 in New York State, in Illinois, and in Ontario Canada. for water Fluoride is a mineral and in the right amount, fluoride in drinking water strengthens teeth. The results after 6 years of fluoridation were published in 1953. 0 part per million (ppm) appeared to offer  Jul 25, 2012 The researchers conducted a systematic review of studies, almost all of which are from China where risks from fluoride are well-established. With these PHS investigations, research on fluoride and its effects on tooth enamel began in earnest. decrease. Children seem to be more susceptible to the effects of ingesting fluoride. Furthermore, a significant  of hepatocytes and fibroblastic proliferation in one study and severe liver Fluoride accounts for about 0. Fluoride exposure may lead to a reduction in kidney and liver function among adolescents, according to a study published by Mount Sinai researchers in Environment International in August. Fluoride is commonly used in dentistry to strengthen enamel, which is the outer layer of your teeth. Various food items such as vegetables, meat, grains, eggs and milk products act as a chief source of fluoride in routine life and helps in prevention of dental issues (Sengupta and Pal, 1971, Susheela, 1993). Fluoride in Volcanic Areas: A Case Study in Medical Geology. It’s also added in small amounts to public water supplies A study undertaken by The Atomic Energy Commission and the hidden fluoride study should make many feel a desire to tar and feather those whom we elect to protect us, and rightfully so. The China National Knowledge Infrastructure database also was included to locate studies published in Chinese journals. ” Abstract Objectives To estimate the effect of fluoride slow‐release glass devices on the levels of fluoride in a pooled sample of human gingival crevicular fluid and in human saliva. Multiple animal studies have found that fluoride levels as low as 1 part per million (ppm) -- which is the amount added to most fluoridated water systems -- cause kidney damage. While fluoride has been recommended for years, Hujoel's team wanted to focus on the intensity of oral hygiene to see if it made a difference in cavity prevention. The findings of the Harvard researchers whose study was funded by the National Institutes of Health is nothing short of disturbing: (1) “… children in high fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low fluoride areas. Too much is very dangerous. Sep 20, 2017 Already there are people who claim fluoridated water is doing bad things to us. We can start by being careful about surreptitious forms of fluoride in Teflon, foods and beverages produced with muncipal water, tap water, infant formula, fluoride containing drugs like Prozac, toothpaste, etc. A 2017 study found that fluoride exposure in utero was linked to poorer cognitive performance later in life. Fluoride promotes the growth of bacteria that neutralize acids on your teeth. org, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation | July 24, 2012 ‘Harvard University researchers’ review of fluoride/brain studies concludes “our results support the possibility of adverse effects of fluoride exposures on children’s neurodevelopment. Study authors believe that there is a “pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity” and fluoride is a contributor. A study, which was published last year, confirmed the dangers that water fluoridation has when it is consumed by children, particularly on their IQ. Fluoride, a naturally-occurring mineral, helps prevent cavities in children and adults by making the outer surface of your teeth more resistant to the acid attacks that cause tooth decay. Consensus Study Report. 10 High levels of levels greater than those recommended in the U. Consider this statement by the ADA in 1979: "Individual dentists must be  Fluoride: A compound of fluorine with another element or radical. For example, if fluoridation is a risk factor, is the type of fluoride used important? Studies suggesting a link between public water fluoridation and reduced intelligence rely on unsubstantiated leaps made possible by studies of “ insufficient  Jan 28, 2013 At least when it comes to topical application, you have a choice. I won't say Fluoride is 100% safe. As another example, fluoride was recently identified as one of 12 industrial chemicals known to cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans. Fluoride Varnish Case Study Case Study: Marylandʼs Mouths Matter: Fluoride Varnish and oral Health Screening Program for Kids The state of Maryland Department of Health fluoride varnish program reimburses physicians and nurse practitioners for the application of fluoride varnish for children who Fluoride reduces the acid production on your teeth caused by bacteria. Fluoride is added to municipal water supplies and dental products, such as toothpaste, to prevent or reduce tooth decay. Fluoride toothpaste, including stannous fluoride toothpaste, helps fight cavities and prevent tooth decay in two ways. The study, published Tuesday in the journal Environmental Health Study Details. Now comes a new study suggesting a link between fluoride  The purpose of this report to Congress is to study the hazards associated with the production and uses of hydrofluoric acid and to make recommendation. Fluoride, obtained from toothpaste and fluoridated water, helps protect your teeth from dental caries. Juneau fluoride study confirms old science, but doesn’t sway opponents. The architect of these first fluoride studies was Dr. This and other studies linking fluoride to cancer were government-ordered but were quickly buried once fluoride was found to be linked to dramatic increases in cancer. fluoride. Trendley Dean, head of the Dental Hygiene Unit at the National Institute of Health (NIH). And the study even accounted for other potential variables, such as lead exposure, iodine deficiency or a history of brain disease or head injury. Jan 31, 2018 As with most of these fluoride-IQ studies this one is only relevant to areas of endemic fluorosis (This is from a UNESCO paper and has been  Oct 10, 2018 Higher levels of urinary fluoride during pregnancy are associated with according to a new study by researchers at the University of Toronto  Sep 23, 2017 The American Dental Association seems unphased by yet another study pointing to the negative health effects of fluoride. The process has caused controversy for more than 60 years. In the 2006 Harvard University study, there The purpose of this study was to discover whether fluoride accumulates in the aged pineal gland. A meta-analysis of 27 cross-sectional studies of children exposed to fluoride in drinking water, mainly from China, suggests an average IQ decrement of about seven points in children exposed to raised fluoride concentrations. H. Can fluoridated water cause cancer? A possible relationship between fluoridated water and cancer risk has been debated for years. Jul 22, 2014 A recent New Zealand study, published this year, found no link between fluoride exposure and IQ or neurotoxicity over a 38 year period at more  Mar 3, 2016 problems such as hypoactive thyroid, dental fluorosis, and others. The fluoride content of 20 commer-cially available formulas and 8 baby food samples from 4 different brands was measured using a modified microdiffusion method and fluoride ion selective electrode. “This was funded by the NIH and was a multi-million dollar study. Fluoride (/ ˈ f l ʊər aɪ d, ˈ f l ɔːr-/) is an inorganic, monatomic anion with the chemical formula F − (also written [F] −), whose salts are typically white or colorless. Perhaps most worrisome is preliminary research in laboratory animals suggesting that high levels of fluoride may be toxic to brain and nerve cells. A recent study of the effects of inorganic fluoride compounds on human cellular functions revealed that fluoride can interact with a wide range of enzyme-mediated cellular processes and genes modulated by fluoride including those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications, and signal transduction (CNN)Increased levels of prenatal fluoride exposure may be associated with lower cognitive function in children, a new study says. Fluoride kills bone bacteria. In summary, the study established that water fluoridation significantly reduces IQ in children and that fluoride may be a neurotoxin that affects brain development. However, there are few clin-ical studies of the effectiveness of these foams. Fluoride and IQ. They searched the Story highlights. They searched the All of the children in the study had at least four teeth and no cavities. People are primarily exposed to fluoride from drinking water and use of fluoridated dental products, with water fluoridation representing 30% to 70% of a typical individual’s total exposure. government funded (NIH)– have been published today linking fluoride exposure to ADHD,  Sep 11, 2016 As of June 2018, a total of 60 studies have investigated the relationship between fluoride and human intelligence, and over 40 studies have  The following peer-reviewed studies and reports answer this question because many of them were conducted within the past 20 years — when both fluoride  Jul 28, 2015 And there are other issues that make this topic hard to study. It isn't. Portland, Oregon, gets its water from the Bull Run watershed, a 102-square mile protected watershed that is so pristine and pure the city was even granted a waiver from having to build a water treatment plant. The study found that children who drank water with naturally high levels of fluoride had less tooth decay. The NIDCR-funded Iowa Fluoride Study began in 1991 and recruited a cohort of nearly 1,900 women with newborns to study longitudinally the complex exposures and intakes of fluoride from water, many foods, other beverages, and dental cavity prevention products, as well as relationships with dental caries (cavities) and other oral health conditions. Excessive exposure can lead to tooth discoloration and bone problems. About Fluoride Science. Back then, the science  Jan 27, 2018 The results of the first ever US government funded study of fluoride and IQ have just been published. They then analyzed possible associations with IQ measures in more than 8,000 children of school age; all but one study suggested that high fluoride content in water may negatively affect cognitive development. Another study confirms the detrimental effects of . May 14, 2018 Researchers found no link between fluoride exposure and adverse health effects in a study published in Neurotoxicity Research, the National  Oct 10, 2018 Three significant studies—two of which were U. Even though studies have suggested that fluoride in drinking water showed  Aug 7, 2012 A review of brain studies involving the use of fluoride has concluded that one of the adverse effects of fluoride exposure on children is damage  Nov 15, 2014 In this study, rats fed for one year with 1 ppm of either sodium fluoride or aluminum fluoride in their water (the same level used in fluoridation  May 29, 2018 Fluoride is banned in China, where studies on large populations showed an I. Broadbent—gathered data for 38 years from children born in the 1971 and 1972. A study provided by the Lancet showed that fluoride is a neurotoxin which causes developmental toxicity. The debate resurfaced in 1990 when a study by the National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, showed an increased number of osteosarcomas (bone tumors) in male rats given water high in fluoride for 2 years (). “This study assessed the relationship between dental caries and fluorosis at varying fluoride levels in drinking water. The report noted potential negative effects due to fluoridation, including The Harvard IQ study: "Developmental Fluoride  Sep 22, 2017 22, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The results of the first ever US government funded study of fluoride and IQ have just been published. ” 2006) in their report Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. Are they as effective as toothpastes that contain fluoride? Dr. Fluoride also inhibits dental caries by affecting the metabolic activity of cariogenic bacteria. However, as the 83rd Congress was on its collective way home before the end of July, all bills of direct interest to dentistry were destined to lay over until 1954 (21e). Several studies have highlighted beneficial effects of fluoride in biological system. Trendley Dean, had examined the teeth of children drinking water with high natural fluoride and then approved what was supposed to be a 15 to 20 year study of artificial fluoridation in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Q. Fluoride is often called nature’s cavity fighter and for good reason. She graduated from Southern Illinois University with a bachelor of science degree in dental hygiene. Daisy is a graduate student and a dental hygienist at the College of Dentistry. ” Related Studies: Fluoride can also become concentrated in bone—stimulating bone cell growth, altering the tissue’s structure, and weakening the skeleton. John Torres weighs in on the study. The first intervention study was undertaken under the direction of USPHS in Grand Rapids in 1945. If fluoride can be used to ease an overactive thyroid gland, then it is only pure logic that too much of it can lead to an underactive gland. The Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS) is a longitudinal study of children (now young adults) originally designed to quantify fluoride exposures from both dietary and non-dietary sources and to associate longitudinal fluoride exposures with dental fluorosis (spots on teeth) and dental caries (cavities). Pro-Fluoride Group Rewards Minority and Immigrant Groups With Cash Payments for Support. Learn how fluoride works and what happens if you do not get enough fluoride or ingest too A 2014 study in the American Journal of Public Health, “Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand,” seeks to clarify the fluoride-intelligence issue. Are There Benefits to Using Fluoride-Free Toothpaste? More natural toothpaste options are popping up in the market, and many of these are fluoride-free. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of fluoride varnish (FV) applied once or twice a year with counseling to counseling alone in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) (tooth decay in children under the age of five). The researchers randomly assigned 376 children to receive parental counseling and no fluoride varnish treatments, two fluoride treatments at one-year intervals or four fluoride treatments at six-month intervals over the two-year course of the study. Kidney disease is another hallmark of fluoride poisoning. For years, many communities have added fluoride to drinking water to help reduce cavities. As the anti-fluoride lobby gains traction, more scientific evidence is pointing to the fact that fluoride is not a useful additive to drinking water. Fluoride provides For example, children’s exposure to fluoride is extremely important to consider, and this issue was made evident in recent news about a study linking fluoride exposure in utero with lower IQs. ''The importance of this study by the National Toxicology Program is that it is the first fluoride bioassay giving positive results in which the latest state-of-the-art procedures have been 7 hours ago · This study's findings, combined with previous studies of childhood exposure to higher fluoride levels, show there is a dose-dependent relationship between fluoride and indicators of kidney and Another study that year which tracked the fluoride consumption of more than 600 schoolchildren in Iowa showed there was no significant link between fluoride ingestion and tooth decay. M. EPA will rely on these new assessments to review the existing maximum level of fluoride allowed in drinking water and determine whether its drinking water regulations for fluoride should be revised. Eliminating exposure to fluoride is the #1 priority. There have been over 23 human studies and 100 animal Study authors believe that there is a “pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity” and fluoride is a contributor. the fluoride level of public drinking water would have the same effects. By Diana Paula Silva Linhares, Patrícia Ventura Garcia and Armindo dos Santos Rodrigues. This was the group’s first study of fluoride, their other studies mostly dealing with lead, mercury, and other environmental neurotoxicants. In the 1991 rat study, for example, levels of fluoride used in the study were much higher than what would be found in a community fluoridation program. There is enough fluoride in the water already, without adding more. Trendley Dean, a dental officer of the U. You can easily buy fluoride-free toothpaste and mouthwash. Dean began investigating the epidemiology of fluorosis in 1931. luoride exposure may lead to a reduction in kidney and liver function among adolescents, according to a study published by Mount Sinai researchers in Environment International in August. While 7 hours ago · This study's findings, combined with previous studies of childhood exposure to higher fluoride levels, show there is a dose-dependent relationship between fluoride and indicators of kidney and Another study that year which tracked the fluoride consumption of more than 600 schoolchildren in Iowa showed there was no significant link between fluoride ingestion and tooth decay. Fluoride in Drinking Water reviews research on various health effects from exposure to fluoride, including studies conducted in the Feb 26, 2014 After a decade's study, Dean and his team found that water containing fluoride at a concentration of 1. Additional studies identified in the OW initial literature search (2006) were also evaluated. First, according to a study published in PLOS One , it has the ability to prevent demineralization, a naturally occurring process during which tooth enamel loses its mineral content due to exposure to acids produced by bacteria Twelve years ago, Juneau, AK, stopped adding fluoride to community water sources. Sep 21, 2016 A comprehensive study by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia have found fluoride in potable water to be safe for  Many research studies have proven the safety and benefits of fluoride. Fluoride is not a medication. A new study by the Cochrane Collaboration, a highly regarded group of doctors and researches who review health science in the United Kingdom, has determined that there is little to no evidence that fluoride reduces dental decay. 26 percent or 22,600 ppm fluoride ion. 8 – 3. Fluoridescience. Public Health Service. Parts of Canada have also banned it, as well as  Most dentists never bother to take the time to study both sides of the fluoride issue. Study of fluoride content in some commercial phosphate fertilizers manufactured from phosphate rock bearing high levels of fluoride in the form of fluorapatite. The subjects were 39,000 school children between 5 and 17  Jan 21, 2016 American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Oct 10, 2018 A new study led by York University researchers has found that fluoride levels in urine are twice as high for pregnant women living in Canadian  Aug 8, 2018 TODAY's Dylan Dreyer reports from the Orange Room, while NBC medical correspondent Dr. In the 1990s, fluoride foam was introduced into dental practice. Fluoride containing compounds are used topical and systemic in the prevention of tooth decay. The study looked at the effect of fluoride on the hippocampal region of rat brain, and concluded that: “Fluoride may go through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in rat hippocampus, and inhibit the activity of cholinesterase. While the study is stronger than many used to draw a connection between IQ and fluoride in the past, it is a single study that has yet to be replicated, and it was performed in areas without water Fluoride (/ ˈ f l ʊər aɪ d, ˈ f l ɔːr-/) is an inorganic, monatomic anion with the chemical formula F − (also written [F] −), whose salts are typically white or colorless. By. (Natural News) Another study has added to the growing body of evidence that links the fluoride found in water with lowered intelligence quotients (IQ) in children. The aim of this study was to examine the amount of fluoride ingested from infant formula and baby food in infants aged up to 6 months in South Korea. 2 mg/l, but no. There have been over 23 human studies and 100 animal plaque and saliva inhibit the demineralization of sound Regarding cognitive ability, a recent study of enamel and enhance the remineralization of demineralized enamel. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that it has reevaluated the current science on fluoride. While the effects of fluoride on the thyroid, skeletal system, and brain is fairly clear cut, the science is less clear on how fluoride affects other parts of the body. In the course of writing the book, Fluoride, the Aging Factor (Health Action Press, Delaware, Ohio, 1986), this author had already traced the history of studies claiming that fluoridation reduced tooth decay by 60-70% A number of fluoride modalities, ranging from toothpaste to varnish, were compared with placebo or no treatment. Fluoride is one of several examples of everyday products fortified to improve our health — iodine is added to salt, folic acid is added to breads and cereals, and Vitamin D is added to milk. They found no significant difference between the IQs of children based on their fluoride exposure. For example, children’s exposure to fluoride is extremely important to consider, and this issue was made evident in recent news about a study linking fluoride exposure in utero with lower IQs. org is dedicated to balanced reviews of fluoride studies and communicating the qualities and summaries of the scientific evidence for professional communities that may engage in patient care and/or public health services. Apr 11, 2018 Abstract: Concerns exist regarding potential harms of community water fluoridation. Study finds drop in scores on intelligence tests with increased in utero fluoride exposure; It is the largest and longest study to evaluate role of fluoride in developing brain The most recent Chinese study on fluoride & the brain was posted on PubMed just last week. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific  3 hours ago August 8, 2019)—Fluoride exposure may lead to a reduction in kidney and liver function among adolescents, according to a study published by  Dec 26, 2018 Unlike the others, a public health researcher decided to study the real-world aftermath of ending fluoridation in Juneau. Fluoride exposure history was retrospectively collected by a parental questionnaire detailing past exposure to all sources of fluoride. Fluoride is most commonly associated with healthy teeth, but a new study shows how it might be put to work in better batteries. Fluoride varnish is cleared for marketing by the Water fluoridation is the addition of the chemical fluoride to public water supplies, for the purpose of reducing cavities. Dean and other dentists compared statistics from Amarillo, which had 2. ” “The study authors are cautious in their conclusions, as is common for scientists. Fluoride-containing var-nishes typically contain 5 percent NaF, which is equivalent to 2. We’ve been convinced by the dental associations, who profit on the production and dissemination of fluoride, that the neurotoxin needs to be a part of […] The parent study’s sample was chosen using multistage, stratified random selection with probability of selection proportional to population size. 3 g/kg of the Earth's crust and exists in the form of flu-. In 1936 and 1937, Dr. Fluoride helps to prevent cavities. According to the study, fluoridation with sodium fluoride could be a contributing factor to diabetes rates in the United States, as the chemical is a known preservative of blood glucose. It’s still unclear whether these changes Fluoride exposure may lead to a reduction in kidney and liver function among adolescents, according to a study published by Mount Sinai researchers in Environment International in August. Study Details. Critical information fields examined and summarized include endpoint studied, type of study and population studied, Daisy is a part-time Research Assistant with the Iowa Fluoride and Iowa Bone Development Study. However, because it is unknown how the subjects of the study ingested the fluoride – whether through salt, water, or both – no conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of community water fluoridation in the U. But you're stuck  Download a PDF of "Fluoride in Drinking Water" by the National Research Council for free. The study objective was to examine the association  Mar 3, 2018 In 1986-87, the largest study on fluoridation and tooth decay ever was performed. It states that previous studies supporting the “lowered IQ” hypothesis have likely been subject to methodological errors, or “confounding. Holistic Dentistry added that the results of the study shouldn't be too surprising, given that fluoride was actually used in the 1950s to treat hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid. 2 This discovery was important because during that time most children and adults in the United States The US Public Health Department, headed by the “father of fluoridation,” H. This project was a prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between tooth decay in children and naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Here's another study that produced similar results, again in China. Questions and Answers on Fluoride The U. ” The study—led by University of Otego’s J. . A team of researchers found a statistically  Oct 17, 2018 Thousands of studies have shown that fluoride is safe and effective — but it's still sparking debates, seven decades after it was first added to  Dec 29, 2018 Alaska's capital stopped fluoridating its tap water about 12 years ago, and a new study says Juneau's children are paying a price. fluoride study